2009/10/08

The Greatest Thing: Dujiangyan/最偉大的東西:都江堰

都江堰是我所知道最偉大的東西。

從年代來說,它完成於秦始皇滅六國之前,也就是說,它比長城還老。而現在的長城,不過是明朝的邊牆,還不是秦長城呢!

從實用性來說,長城、金字塔都成了廢物。它們都已經失去當初原先建造的功能,而都江堰卻歷久彌新,仍然發揮著它的原始功用。

從人道主義出發,都江堰將常年氾濫,死人無數的岷江馴服,轉而灌溉成都平原,將四川變成天府之國。千年來,救人無數,活人無數。

從歷史影響來看,都江堰去了秦王的心腹之患,轉而成為助力,提供糧食,餵飽軍民。沒有都江堰,搞不好他就滅不了六國。

從科技角度來講,魚嘴分水堤產生漩渦,將沙帶到外江。漩渦其實就是亂流,是流體力學裡,相當難以利用的現象。飛機就是無法利用亂流,所以碰到亂流才會顛簸;蒼蠅就是能夠利用亂流,所以才能在空中停留、進退自如。

工程方面,都江堰建造時鐵器尚未普及,炸藥尚未發明。開鑿寶瓶口時,先將岩石燒熱,再澆冰水。如此熱脹冷縮,花了八年才開通。

根據考據,李冰無子,只有女兒。不孝有三,無後為大。老天不給李冰兒子,人民給!於是人們建了二王廟。年年祭祀。香火不斷。

As far as I concern, Dujiangyan Irrigation System is the greatest thing, ever.

It was built by the first emperor before he conquored the rest of China. It was much older than the Great Wall. The Great Wall we see today was built in Ming Dynasty, not the original one built by the first emperor.

Great Wall and Pyramid are nothing but a pile of rock these days. They have lost their functionality of their original design. Dujiangyan is still fully function as designed.

From humanatarian point of view, it tamed the Ming River. Instead of flooding and killing people, Dujiangyan makes her water the land and feed people. Consider the number of people it has saved and fed over the years, it is indeed the greatest thing ever!

Instead of causing the first emperor tons of trouble each year, now this land feeds his people and army. Without Dujiangyan, it was unlikely for the first emperor to conquer the rest of China.

From technology point of view, Fish Mouth Levee generate and utilize whirlpools to drage the sand to the outer river. This is darn difficult fluid dynamic.

From engineering point of view, Dujiangyan was built in bronze age before the invention of gunpowder. Bottle-Neck Channel was built by burning firewood on the rock then cool it down by pouring cold water. Eventually the rock would cumble. It took 8 years of this painstaking process to open up the mountain for the Bottle-Neck Channel.

Not having a son is considered a great dishonour in Chinese culture. The officer in charge of building Dujiangyan, Li Bin, has only a daughter. Since Gods does not give him a son, the people do. People built the Two King Temple worshping Li Bin and his "son".


檢視較大的地圖


Fish Mouth Levee/分水魚嘴


Flying Sand Weir/飛沙堰


Bottle-Neck Channel/寶瓶口


The thingies on the wall to the left hand side is for tying horses/左邊牆上那玩意兒是拴馬用的。



延伸閱讀:
他的都江堰 我的烏山頭



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